Regulation of Air Transport: The Slumbering Sentinels

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They are actually more flexible in b removing all capacity controls and virtually all controlling the capacity and revenue sharing. Under open skies, however, there are no capacity It also facilitated the emergence of low cost scheduled restrictions. Changing aircraft gauge on fifth airlines Doganis, For example, through Therefore, open skies agreements may provide: a bilateral agreements under Article 83 bis of the multiple designation with or without route restrictions; Chicago Convention, states can transfer all or part of b unrestricted capacity and frequencies on all routes; certain safety oversight responsibilities.

However, c open route access; d expanded Air Freedom since few bilateral agreements implementing Article Rights Third, Fourth and Fifth freedom rights ; e 83 have been notified to ICAO by 1 May , liberal charter arrangements; f development of states had ratified the provision the situation is not airline alliances, code-sharing opportunities and acceptable even for this group.

On the other hand, facilitation of other commercial agreements; g more oversight responsibility of numerous aircraft of all competitive air cargo services; h full market access type all over the world should be split Abeyratne, without restrictions; i gauge break permission; j no In addition states significantly improved by technological advances but may interpret those standards and recommended adversely affected by human and organizational practices differently Abeyratne, While there is a continuing movement is another area that might impinge on the safety of toward liberalization, if not outright deregulation flight.

For example safety and security threats can be managed by validation of foreign crew licenses by the State of maintaining the highest standards of safety and Registry can be raised in dry leases. The variation of security in a more competitive environment IATA, rules and requirements for crew licenses between the In a liberalized environment, safety concerns State of Registry and the state that initially issued the arise principally from those commercial arrangements licenses can complicate the issue. Discrepancies which impinge on the operation of aircraft or the between laws and regulations of the State of Registry operating personnel and fall into two basic categories: and the State of the Operator may be a challenge in the a those situations which potentially leave their case of wet leases.

The situation regulatory system. In these situations, safety threats in damp leases when the operation involves a mixed stem from various factors which are briefly mentioned crew may become more complicated Abeyratne, below: Without safety privilege to carry traffic between the territory of the oversight arrangements between the State of Operator granting state and third state s with no requirement and the State of Registry the airworthiness oversight for the service to connect the recipient state may of the aircraft becomes a problem.

Two groups of establish its operational base in the granting state. A serious oversight Abeyratne, Code-sharing is a state of the outsourced activity may face special marketing arrangement in which an airline places its challenges on how to ensure that such practice or designator code on a flight operated by another entity fulfill the requirements for safety and security airline and sells and issues tickets for that flight s Abeyratne, Safety and security would become more arduous Abeyratne, Along with opportunity and responsibility to make sure that safety liberalization, there is a growing trend standards are maintained Hersman, ; However, towards regionalism in regulating air transport determining the level of involvement of services.

As stated earlier code sharing arrangements. For example, in a liberalized environment, airlines may disturb the Another safety issue relates to having operations or patterns and levels of traffic by making changes in places of business in different states. Allowing cross- their routes and frequency of services. Process While liberalization is a desirable goal, states, based Outsourcing of operational activities affecting aircraft on their air transport needs, national situation, political operation creates another area of concern.

The use of requirements, interests of stakeholders, etc. For accounting, in-flight catering, aircraft cleaning, example, US Air transportation system matured as it passenger handling and informatics Doganis, passed through government-regulated monopoly, seem to be proliferating in parallel with deregulation deregulated free market, public—private partnership Rieple, In all these cases, such services have PPP and global partnership with foreign enterprise been provided by emerging multinational industries. Lessons compliance with international safety standards can be learned from deregulation in US proved applicable ICAO standards including that the workload of the Federal Aviation personnel licensing, operation and Administration FAA has greatly increased airworthiness of aircraft and the safe transport after deregulation without simultaneous of dangerous goods by air.

The audit reports increases in budget and or staff at least should be approved by FAA; and c initially. Inadequate FAA oversight and implementing in place FAA-accepted code- surveillance of pilot certification procedures share safety program. To ensure that flights, pricing and commercial opportunities could standard safety measures are adopted by providers bring various economic advantages for states such as of trans-border operations involving aircraft traffic growth, multiple air carriers, enhanced service leasing, code-sharing and similar arrangements , options, pricing competition and job creation through states may: development of travel and tourism.

Doganis R.

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Flying off Course: The Economics Regionalism. Safety concerns of these situations of international Airlines, Routledge, Third edition. Code personnel and raise questions about attribution of Share Safety Program Guideline.

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Revision 1. Air Transport liberalized arrangement. Despite of the type of economic regulation employed, 49 4 , pp. Guelfi A. Implications of Code-Sharing Therefore without sufficient resources for states to Agreements on Air Carriers' Liability, A thesis meet their safety and security responsibilities, submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the liberalization efforts are not fully fruitful.

However, degree of Master of Laws L.

These include: a Hersman D. Keynote Address to American to set out a staged liberalization which provides the Bar Association Forum on Air and Space Law, regulators with an opportunity to improve their Update Conference Washington, DC, retrieved from capacity and develop regulations regarding clear www.

Regulation Of Air Transport: The Slumbering Sentinels

International Civil Aviation Organization Ito H. Domestic Code sharing, arrangements. Alliances and Airfares in the U. Airline Industry. Journal of Law and Economics, 50 2 , References King M.

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